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Breast And Endocrine Surgery

Endocrine organs secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, they are structures that. The treatment plan for the diagnosis of diseases requiring surgery in endocrine organs is made by Endocrine Surgery.For the diagnosis and treatment of diseases; nuclear medicine,radiology,oncologist,multidisciplinary studies such as pathology branches are studied.

What is the diagnosis and treatment of diseases?

Thyroid diseases (goiter, thyroid cancer) Parathyroid diseases (hyperplasia, hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, adenoma, cancer)

Renal diseases (adenoma, cancer, Cushing’s syndrome, Addison syndrome, pheochromocytoma) In recent years, technological and scientific advances have been made in endocrine surgery. Less thyroid and parathyroid and adrenal adrenal surgeries are performed. Small bleeding and mini-invasive laparoscopic technology cause less bleeding and complication. Adrenal gland operations can be performed laparoscopically or openly.

Breast Cancer

Be aware, don’t be afraid, don’t be late!

Breast cancer disease, the most common cancer type in women, has seen serious advances in diagnosis and treatment over the past two decades. With the early diagnosis of the diagnosis, the rate of getting rid of cancer increased with breast conserving surgeries.

The diagnosis of early breast cancer is completely curable. Early diagnosis is important!

What is Breast Cancer?

Breast cancer Thirty years ago, there were 12-14 women. It is caused by uncontrolled proliferation in milk channel and milk-forming cells in the breast. 33% of cancers in women are breast cancer. All of the cancer patients threaten 20%. 1 out of 8 women have the risk of facing breast cancer throughout their life.

Breast cancer originates from the cancer cells in the milk ducts in the breast tissue. 80% of them are invasive ductal carcinoma. Invasive ductal carcinoma indicates that the cancer originates from milk channels. The remaining 20 percent are of the invasive lobular carcinoma type and breast cancer develops from this type of glands. The proliferation and growth of cells in breast cancer takes a good time. After cancer cells proliferate, cells can begin to spread to other organs of the body through lymph and blood. Recognition of cancer without spreading is very important.

The rate of treatment with this diagnosis is very high. For this reason, early diagnosis is very important in breast cancer39, but it is very rare in men compared to women. When cancer occurs in men, the course is faster and worse than breast cancer in women. 1 out of 100 breast cancers occur in males. Although the cause is not known exactly, many factors such as genetics, nutrition, socio-economic life, menstruation, number of births and birth control pills can be indicated. The incidence of breast cancer increases with age. When the age range is 50-70, the incidence of breast cancer increases and the risk increases in the presence of a family history of breast cancer. When the mother or brother has breast cancer, the risk of developing a disease increases by 3 times.

Therefore, people who have breast cancer in their family should have more frequent checks when they are 40 years of age. Those with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high risk of developing both breast and ovarian cancer. Using hormone pills for over 5 years in menopause also increases the risk of breast cancer.

Can Breast Cancer Symptoms Be Recognized?

The most visible symptom of breast cancer is the breast mass. The mass can also be seen under the seat outside the breast. If the mass is enlarged, nipple withdrawal is also a sign of breast cancer. Rarely, bloody or bloodless discharge from the nipple is the breast cancer enema. If the tumor causing breast cancer grows at an advanced level, edema and swelling of the breast skin may occur. The appearance of redness and orange is also an indicator of breast cancer. If the cancer has spread, complaints related to the spread area can also be seen. It is important to recognize the symptoms of breast cancer and to know the breast structure of the individual and to know the risk factors. Every woman should have her own breast examination after the age of 20 years. Self-inspection after the order within 5-7 days; For women who do not have menstrual period, they should be done once a month. painless, rigid, swollen or non-displacing, swellings that grow in time. Changes in the size, shape or shape of the breast. Redness, wounds, vasodilation, bruising, internal collapse, small widespread swelling, orange peel-like point shrinkage in the form of breasts. Color and shape change, nipple expansion, flattening, nip , wound, crack, change of direction, crusting. Blood flowing from the nipple, bloodless discharge.

Breast Cancer Risk Factors

Breast cancer risk factors are the most important ones. Family history of breast cancer is one of the risk factors. Breast cancer (age 1 before the age of 50) in the relative age of a person, breast cancer, the likelihood of getting 3 times higher. Breast cancer in second-degree relatives is also an important risk factor for breast cancer. The higher the risk of breast cancer, the higher the risk of breast tissue. Breast cancer risk increases in those with less fat in breast tissue. The density of breast tissue can be measured mammographically and sonographically. Radiation therapy is a risk factor for breast cancer, especially since it is applied close to the chest. Therefore, it is recommended that those who receive radiotherapy treatment, especially lymphoma patients, should have their controls frequently after treatment. Early menstruation should be considered as a risk factor. Those who are menstruated before the age of eleven are considered to be more risky for breast cancer. Breastfeeding or first pregnancy after 30 years of age, excessive alcohol consumption and being overweight are among the risk factors for breast cancer. Especially after menopause, the risk of breast cancer in estrogen used to reduce the effects of menopause 1.5. A person with a family history of breast cancer is more at risk of developing breast cancer than at other people. The risk of breast cancer is increased at the age of the onset. Women with white skin are at risk of 20% compared to women with dark skin. . It is caused by hereditary disorder (mutation). The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is the genetic mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The risk for family members with BRCA mutation is 80%. Seeing radiation therapy before the age of 15 increases the risk of breast cancer after age 40 to 35%. In 2 out of 55 women and 55 years of age, there is a spreading breast cancer. Factors such as aging may change the risk of breast cancer over time. Increased risk of breast cancer increases the risk of breast cancer in women of reproductive age. The use of contraceptives in women with breast cancer is 3 times more. It increases.

Risk of Breast Cancer

There is increasing evidence that exercise reduces the risk of breast cancer. A quick walk of at least 1.25 to 2.5 hours per week reduces the risk of breast cancer in women by 18%. When this walk is 10 hours per week, the risk ratio is reduced slightly. There are studies showing that women who use contraceptive pills have a small risk of breast cancer compared to women who do not. When the use of drugs is discontinued, the rate of risk returns to normal. In women who have had more pregnancies and become pregnant when they are young, the risk of breast cancer decreases. The reason for this is the menstrual cycle during pregnancy.

Breast Cancer Types

The risk of breast cancer decreases in women who have had a high pregnancy and become pregnant when they are young. This is due to the menstrual cycle during pregnancy. Ductal carcinoma that develops from the breast canal. This disease may also be a nipple discharge. Lobular Carcinoma In SituTime is an important finding that increases the risk of cancer formation 8-10 times in the breast. Those who are in this condition are regularly under control and close follow-up, and at the same time, the patient is given preventive drugs. In some patients, it is possible to take both breasts for protective purposes and evacuate the breast tissue. Prosthesis and breast reconstruction by surgical means to prevent any problems in cosmetic aspects also contribute to the social lives of patients. Breast cancer can be classified in only two groups up to 10 years, whereas breast cancer is collected in 4 subgroups.

Invasive Carcinoma

Most breast cancers are invasive carcinoma. Among the cancers showing diffusion, ductal carcinoma from the breast canals is the most common breast cancer.

Inflammatory Breast Cancer

It is known as the fastest and worse looking type. Inflammatory diseases of the breast symptoms are similar. It does not give any signs of mass and can sometimes only be seen with symptoms such as redness and stiffness. In spite of the antibiotic treatment, it should be investigated whether there is an underlying cancer in non-healing breast diseases.

What is breast mass and cyst?

The mass in the breast may be a cyst or a solid mass. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystis are the most common mass in the breast. These masses do not turn into cancer and are benign tumors. Women do not know whether these masses are breast cancer or a mass of fibroadenoma that is harmless. Especially under 30 years of age, fibroadenomas are very common due to hormonal changes. The character of the mass in the breast is understood by breast ultrasound. For this, women should see a specialist doctor quickly when they notice a change or a mass in their breasts. Breast ultrasound and mammography can be obtained if necessary.

Is pain in the breast important?

It shows primarily the hormonal changes and the menstrual cycle, especially if both breasts are felt. In addition, fibroadenoma and fibrocysts may cause pain in the breast. Pregnant women feel pain in the breast due to hormonal change and breast-feeding may cause pain in the breast due to breastfeeding. In advanced breast cancer, edema due to tumor growth and pain may occur after the breast. Pain in the breast cannot be seen as a sign of breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Stages

Breast cancer, which is a slowly progressing cancer, reaches 1 cm in 5-7 years. The tumor can spread to the lymph nodes with lymphatic channels and then to the distant organs such as the liver and bone through the blood. Staging is done to find out the stage and spread of the tumor, and treatment is decided accordingly. The TNM system is used for staging breast cancer. T refers to the tumor diameter, N is the number of diseased underarm lymph nodes, and M is a distant spread (metastasis) state. As early stage stage I, II and some stage III tumors are considered early. Stage III tumors and stage IV tumors are considered as advanced stage in breast cancer. When staging, the size of the tumor is examined whether it is spread to the surrounding lymph nodes. According to this, we can describe the stages of breast cancer as follows: Stage 0 – DCISEvre I: tumor smaller than 2 cm and not yet spread to the lymph nodes.Evre II: The tumor is between 2 and 5 cm in size and may not spread to the surrounding lymph nodes. More IV: It means that it has metastasized to organs (liver, brain, lung) or bone, distant lymph nodes.

Diagnosis

Women should know their breasts from the age of 20 years, regular monthly check-ups and mammography checks from the age of 40. cancer is not.

Breast Cancer Diagnosis

Early diagnosis is very important in breast cancer. Early diagnosis of breast cancer is very easy and success rate is very high. For example, the chance of success in breast cancer diagnosed in Stage 0 and the likelihood of recurrence of the disease is 96%. The success rate was 93% in stage II and 85% in stage II. The higher the degree of success, the higher the chance of success. In early diagnosis, every woman needs to be examined for breast self-examination once a month starting from the age of 20 years. Women between the ages of 35 and 40 should have breast ultrasound and mammography once a year after the age of 40. 8 of 10 masses are benign in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Most of these are non-cancerous masses called fibroadenoma or cyst seen in young age and fibrocystic mass in middle age. Pain in the breast mass or painless does not indicate that it is cancer. However, a different structure or mass that is addressed in the breast is necessarily illuminating the mass should be consulted to the doctor is necessary to see. .

What Can Be Done for Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer?

Self breast controls
Annual mammography
Annual medical examination

Self Breast Controls

Breast examination is very important for early diagnosis Breast examination is very important to prevent breast cancer and catch breast cancer at an early stage. Breast cancer is treated with a small mass in the breast and can be treated with close success rate of 100%. Another feature that differentiates breast cancer from other cancers is that it can be evaluated within özellik cancer screening programs M. Therefore, women who have no complaints or masses from their breasts should care about i Screening Methods Bu.

Self Breast Examination How?

It is an easy way for women to regularly examine their own breasts in front of the mirror every month. Breast examination should be done every 4-5 days after the end of the period.

Breast examination should be done every 4-5 days after the end of the period.
Women with menopausal, uterine or ovarian surgery should periodically periodically inspect the breasts to match the same days once a month.

In breast examination, the symmetry of the breast, whether there is a discharge in the nipple, the presence of any deformity, skin changes, whether a audience should be taken into account.

Breast Examination in 3 Steps

Lift your arms up.
Check your breasts for any irregularities, scars or depressions, nipple wounds, scabs, and withdrawals.
Put your hands on your waist and press down firmly. Muscle your muscles at the same time.
Check that there is no pull out of the breast from the mirror. As a result of your control you can see that your breasts are not equal to each other. This is a common condition and should not be seen as a symptom of disease.

Inspection While Showering

While examining your left breast, hold your left hand over your head. Examine your left hand with your right hand from top to bottom and from bottom to top. With your right hand, press the left hand side of the left breast by pressing it towards the nozzle to draw the right ray or circles. Do it using your left hand. Tell your doctor if you have a different hardness in the size of the nut or walnut in the breast.

Examination on supine position

While examining your right breast, place a pillow under your right shoulder and place your right hand behind your head. Check with your left hand from top to bottom and from bottom to top, by examining your right breast. * Do the same with your right hand for your left breast. Tell your doctor if there is a different hardness in the size of the nut or walnut in the breast. Gently tighten the nipples of both breasts. Whether there is a discharge at the tip of the nipple; Check if it is light or bloody. Tell your doctor of any swelling, thickening, or discharge you notice.

Annual Mammography

In order to be a reference, mammography should be taken at least once in the 30s. Every woman over 40 years of age who does not notice any change in her breast for early diagnosis in breast cancer should have annual mammography. Thus, it is possible to catch breast cancer before reaching the incoming size. However, it is recommended to keep at least one mammography in the 30s in order to make reference to later mammography shots. Those with no family history of breast cancer should have their first ultrasonography after the age of 35 and those with a family history of cancer and those at risk for genetic breast cancer after the age of 25. These persons should be under regular ultrasound follow-up every year from the age of their first ultrasound.

Annual Doctor Examination

Early diagnosis and diagnosis of breast cancer is very important. Even if there is no complaint, all women should be examined by a doctor after the age of 40.

Breast Cancer Treatment

Nowadays, there are important developments in the treatment of breast cancer and the diagnosis and treatment of the disease has become easier and more successful with new treatment methods. In the treatment of breast cancer, priority should be planned for the treatment of the breast. In the early stage of breast cancer without breast loss, advanced disease can be prevented by advanced techniques and measures can be taken directly to the tumor. Breast cancer can be treated by plastic surgery techniques in the breast cancer in advanced stage breast cancer. In breast cancer, breast cancer can be treated at a rate of close to 100%. In stage 0, chemotherapy treatment is not required after surgery. Mostly radiotherapy is added to the treatment. In Stage I and II, it is decided that there will be chemotherapy before surgery. The patient can be operated after chemotherapy treatment in stage III. In Stage IV, surgery can be considered if the cancer has not spread to much of the body. However, if the cancer spread is high, only surgery is not prescribed. Chemotherapy alone and sometimes radiotherapy are treated. Herceptin, Pertuzumab, Kadcylan and Palbociclib are among the most effective chemotherapy drugs. Recently, special vaccines for breast cancer can be used.

Life After Cancer

After breast cancer, patients are expected to reach their old life standards as soon as possible.

Breast Cancer Feeding Process

In the breast cancer process, the form of feeding positively affects the treatment of breast cancer. Breast cancer patients wait for a nutritional list after the diagnosis of breast cancer, from the doctor to another day, or to recover urgently and strengthen the defense system, and they are also disappointed when such a list is not given. Inaccurate information, some private organizations marketing alternative medicine products and individuals under the misinformation of the patient and his family; According to the researches, special supplements to be made for the nutrition after cancer diagnosis cause the patient to lose their appetite, not to eat enough and lose weight. In addition, nutritional experts recommended for all individuals by ından vegetable and fruit-based, red meat to increase the ratio of white meat yeter is good for many cancer patients who have good general status and can be fed. Studies have shown that the special supplements to be made for nutrition after the diagnosis of cancer, but the patient loss of appetite, not enough nutrition and loss of weight in the process of treatment of cancer in the cancer and ongoing treatment due to disease, oral food, mouth sores, long-lasting diarrhea, long-lasting nausea, vomiting, vitamin deficiency in situations such as special nutrition teams by vein or mouth special foods and vitamins should be made with the help of cancer patients, over-eating and salty foods to avoid! Early stage breast cancer patients, especially during the treatment of excessive food and avoid salty foods and pre-treatment cortisone used to reduce allergic side effects, appetite-enhancing, should be careful against the effects of weight and edema. In addition, high calorie foods such as honey and molasses consumed in the name of being sluggish and not weak in this period can cause excessive weight gain in patients who are undesirable and difficult to give afterwards. Nausea and vomiting in the treatment of all other cancers Besides the proven benefit of its use, there is no herbal product that has succeeded in entering the oncology literature as scientific evidence. Herbal products, patients can damage the use of vitamins that are popular in the last 20 years, antioxidant properties and “keep us young will keep our skin smooth, will protect against side effects during cancer treatments” has found an intense use with the assumption that the last 5 years as a result of extensive studies and unnecessary vitamins used outside the recommendation of the body more harm than good or even some of the cancer species has been found to cause even the increase. However, these products, which appear to be natural, undesirable interactions with chemotherapy and other medical treatments, leave many patients and the physician who takes responsibility for treatment.

Nutrition

Nutritional management of cancer patients in the treatment process supports the treatment positively.

Drug Treatments

Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is applied after the majority of surgery. Although there is no cancerous cell after surgery, chemotherapy treatment may continue for a while as a preventive measure.Hormonotherapy The aim of hormone treatment is to decrease the amount of hormone in cancer patients in cases of breast cancer sensitive to female hormones. Some cancer cells, which are sensitive to estrogen, grow and multiply faster. This treatment method prevents the development of cancer by eliminating the effect of estrogen. Smart Treatments Breast cancer is a disease that requires individual and tumor specific treatment with different treatment strategies. While there were no options other than conventional chemotherapy drugs and hormone treatments, the combination of new and more effective chemotherapy drugs, intravenous and oral pills, and new hormonal therapy medications are successful.

Radiotherapy Treatment

The aim of this study is to eliminate the cancer cells that are likely to remain in the breast with radiotherapy after the operation. In the treatment of breast cancer, radiotherapy is applied especially in patients with high risk of renewal and in patients undergoing breast-conserving surgery to protect the remaining tissue of the breast.

Lymph Cloth Surgery

One or more lymph nodes are examined under a microscope to determine the spread of breast cancer to the armpit lymph nodes. This review is important for staging the cancer, determining the treatment modalities and outcomes. If cancer cells are found in the lymph nodes, the chances of the cancer to spread to other parts of the body through the blood circulation are high. The presence of cancer cells in the lymph nodes under the armpit plays an important role in deciding what kind of treatment is required if necessary after surgery.

Breast Protective Surgery

When breast cancer is diagnosed early, the affected part of the breast is removed. However, the part to be taken depends on the size of the tumor, its location and other factors. In the lumpectomy, only the mass in the breast and surrounding tissues are taken. Radiotherapy is a treatment method after lumpectomy. If adjuvant chemotherapy is to be given to the patient, radiotherapy is usually delayed until chemotherapy treatment is completed. In the quadrant method, a quarter of the breast is removed. Radiotherapy is usually given after surgery. Again in this method, if chemotherapy is given, radiotherapy is delayed.

Breast Cancer Treatment Methods Surgical Methods

The primary aim in the treatment of breast cancer surgery is the removal of the tumor from the back and removal of the lymph nodes in the cases that are spread under the armpits. A simple mastectomy is also called a total mastectomy. All breasts, including the nipple, are removed, but not under the armpit lymph nodes or under the breast. Skin protective mastectomy: In some female patients, the breast may be reconstructed during surgery. This process is called skin-protective mastectomy. Most of the skin on the breast (including the nipple (areola) and nipple) is left untouched. Radical mastectomy is a technique that has been used frequently in the past.

Life After Breast Cancer

It is very important to plan the treatment model focused on the quality of life of the patient. Most of the patients have shoulder restriction after surgery (armpit lymph nodes), and sometimes lymph edema. These problems are eliminated by the correct and early exercise and rehabilitation programs. Patients’ lifelong follow-up programs can reduce the likelihood of permanent shoulder limitations and the likelihood of encountering lymphedema. Sexual and psychological problems observed in almost 70% of patients who survive breast cancer can be managed by experts and the problems that may develop in this direction can be eliminated. Exercises continued throughout the disease should be resumed shortly after surgery and should be continued regularly. Most of the breast cancer recurrences are seen in the first 3 years. For this reason, it is important that patients follow the health checks in detail for 3 years after the end of treatment. Breast cancer recurrence rate of 30% in the surgical area, 70% of the distant organs should not be neglected. Exercises continued during the disease, should be restarted shortly after the surgery and should be continued regularly. In the examination examinations patients’ complaints are questioned and the patient is examined in detail. Patients with no complaints or suspicious findings do not require any examination. However, in patients with suspected symptoms, detailed tests are carried out. With the treatment of breast cancer, patients should first open a new page and live out of anxiety. These problems are eliminated due to exercise and rehabilitation programs planned in the early and early period. 70% of the patients who survived breast cancer should be given expert help for sexual problems. The risk is within the first 3 years. For this reason, health checks should not be hampered after surviving the disease. The recurrence rate of breast cancer should not be neglected as 30% are in the surgical field and 70% are in distant organs.

Life After Breast Cancer

It is very important to plan the treatment model focused on the quality of life of the patient. Most of the patients have shoulder restriction after surgery (armpit lymph nodes), and sometimes lymph edema. These problems are eliminated by the correct and early exercise and rehabilitation programs. Patients’ lifelong follow-up programs can reduce the likelihood of permanent shoulder limitations and the likelihood of encountering lymphedema. Sexual and psychological problems observed in almost 70% of patients who survive breast cancer can be managed by experts and the problems that may develop in this direction can be eliminated. Exercises continued throughout the disease should be resumed shortly after surgery and should be continued regularly. Most of the breast cancer recurrences are seen in the first 3 years. For this reason, it is important that patients follow the health checks in detail for 3 years after the end of treatment. Breast cancer recurrence rate of 30% in the surgical area, 70% of the distant organs should not be neglected. Exercises continued during the disease, should be restarted shortly after the surgery and should be continued regularly. In the examination examinations patients’ complaints are questioned and the patient is examined in detail. Patients with no complaints or suspicious findings do not require any examination. However, in patients with suspected symptoms, detailed tests are carried out. With the treatment of breast cancer, patients should first open a new page and live out of anxiety. These problems are eliminated due to exercise and rehabilitation programs planned in the early and early period. 70% of the patients who survived breast cancer should be given expert help for sexual problems. The risk is within the first 3 years. For this reason, health checks should not be hampered after surviving the disease. The recurrence rate of breast cancer should not be neglected as 30% are in the surgical field and 70% are in distant organs.